SMART Competition Opened Registration

There are no official competition beginning or ending dates on the competition schedule.  The SMART Competition has made the schedule completely flexible.  The actual dates and specific deliverable dates are subject to the decisions made by each individual team.  Each team has the flexibility to create their own project plan and schedule. 

 “While we believe the Competition can be completed in 1-2 months, we want each team to control the time they spend on the competition”.  According to Michael Andrews, one of the SMART Competition leadership team, “providing flexibility and emphasizing team decision making is one essential element of success.”  

 One of the first activities each team completes is their schedule using the project management system within Bentley ProjectWise.

 The Competition is an excellent educational program that compliments studies in sustainability, LEED design issues, and renewable power generation.

The SMART Competition (www.smartcompetition.org) is a global STEM and Career and Technology Education (CTE) education program.  The competition is open to all high school and university students.  The competition is designed to attract all students without regard or bias of gender, race, socio-economic or academic performance level.

For additional information, contact Mike Andrews, m.andrews@smartcompetition.org

Sustainability, Efficiency, and Millennials are Driving HVAC Innovations

The heating, ventilation, air conditioning (HVAC) innovations and advancements continue to reshape 2020, with many new trends across the industry set to impact businesses in the coming months and years ahead, according to LG Electronics.

A specialist in quality HVAC product, LG Electronics strives to continuously innovate and deliver solutions that make life easier, greener, and more efficient.

As the industry continues to grow at a remarkable rate, Suraj Kumar, Technical Manager – Air Solutions, LG Electronics Gulf shares the top HVAC trends influencing innovations in air solution technology.  These include:

A Push for Greener Solutions

Environmental awareness and the need for more eco-friendly solutions and services continues to be a top priority across all facets of the industry. Consumers and business are each expressing greater willingness and desire to invest in greener and more sustainable HVAC solutions.

Industry providers are responding with the creation of more sustainable and efficient products which enable customers to reduce their carbon footprint. LG Inverter air conditioning systems are designed to minimize efficiency losses found in conventional HVAC systems and provide sustainable energy savings contributing to lower lifecycle costs.

They can be easily integrated with other Energy Management Solutions and also with its own Centralized Controls to further reduce their carbon footprint.

Enhanced Efficiencies and Reduced Costs with Geothermal Heat Pumps

Geothermal heat pumps have quickly proven themselves to be an ideal alternative energy source, offering both warming and cooling capabilities.

While not yet receiving as much widespread attention as solar panels the geothermal heat pumps are a highly effective and renewable energy source that can transfer heat from the ground to cool and heat buildings – making them an efficient and money-saving renewable energy source.

Catering to Millennials with Customization and Sustainability

Each generation reshapes industry trends and values services differently. As millennials emerge as a significant segment of the housing market audience, their priorities and behaviors are also influencing how companies design new air solutions.

Millennials typically value sustainable solutions that reduce their environmental impact, in addition to more personalized and convenient experiences, alongside enhanced customer service support.

LG said it has prioritized these elements to ensure its HVAC systems cater with this generations personalized and ecological mindset.

With Wi-Fi Enabled Indoor units and LG Smart ThinQ application, users have the freedom of controlling their home’s precise comfort from their fingertips. This capability enhances the efficiency and convenience, giving unprecedented control to create a truly connected home.

Minimizing Greenhouse Gas Emissions

Some consumers are also exploring the avenue of connecting their HVAC to the electrical grid, which is highlighting the importance of reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Air-to-water heat pumps and other solutions can generate cooling and heating from one unit.

This will help with the transition from depending on natural gas, fuel oil or coal to electrical solutions.

Attracting More Employees and HVAC Techs

The HVAC job force is growing as the market is continuing to expand. The industry is recruiting professionals and building the next generation of HVAC engineers and technicians, which requires training programs.

LG Air Conditioning Academies are providing training and skill programs around the world to empower the new generation of HVAC professionals. Regionally the state-of-the-art training academy is located in Jebel Ali.

 

The COVID-19 Impact

The pandemic is creating the need for greater safety precautions within the HVAC industry. Remote working trends and additional precautions are believed to continue affecting the industry even post-pandemic.

In healthcare, where facilities need to operate 24 hours a day, maximizing energy efficiency with quality air circulation is imperative to maintaining a hygienic environment. LG HVAC systems are evolving to better aid the road to recovery and prepare for the new normal with optimal solutions for today’s ever-changing challenges.

DUBAI, October 20, 2020

Bentley Systems – Resilient Designs

Design tools and digital applications are on the rise to support risk planning and scenario analysis during the pandemic and beyond.

Bentley’s OpenBuildings Station Designer enables surveyors, planners, architects, and structural, mechanical, and electrical engineers, to collaborate from the early stages of a building’s design through construction and operations. The application incorporates performance simulations, including people movement and energy consumption, into the design. With LEGION Simulator, which replicates the movement of people in crowded spaces like arenas and train stations, users can predict the safety, efficiency,  and commercial viability of projects before construction begins. For safety, users can model evacuation times, emergency services access, safety routes, and other movement-related features of buildings.

OpenBuildings can test the efficiency of any object, such as stairs, escalators, ticket machines, and turnstiles; activity spots, such as shops, queueing spaces, and security check areas; and other interactions, including passenger communication systems, staff guidance, and wayfinding signage. Simulations can also evaluate the design of commercial spaces and activities, including advertising, shops, or vending machines.

Users around the world have turned to movement simulation to test social distancing operational plans and measures such as flow separation, queuing distribution, and safe passenger numbers in public spaces. For example, London Underground, part of Transport for London, has used OpenBuildings and LEGION for years. Station capacity managers use real-life validated digital models of the majority of central stations in London to test the implementation of multiple social distancing guidelines and plans.

LEGION Simulator can test different applications of infrastructure as the world reopens. Atkins, a member of the SNC-Lavalin Group and one of the world’s most respected design, engineering, and project management consultancies, is providing guidance for COVID-19 recovery to clients around the world. They recently produced a COVID-19 safer public place plan for the UK government that includes a staged process of reopening, recovering, and reimagining urban centers with social distancing in mind.

Analyzing proximity breaches and visualizing clashes among proximity circles can reveal how normal behavior increases the risk of operations. Simulations of how people respond to visual cues helps reimagine how people wait for and board trains. They are also determining how other large public spaces, such as stadiums, will welcome back the public. How will seating be allocated to ensure social distancing? Where will temperature checks prior to entry be located? How will the stadium be managed after the game?

Cities of the Future – How will They Change?

It is difficult to predict how long social distancing requirements will be necessary. However, urbanization, public transport demand, and technological disruption accelerated even before the pandemic. These trends have driven the need for efficient, resilient, and cost-effective infrastructure. Cities around the world are going digital to enable the exponential growth of simulation-led enhancements and operations improvements. We cannot predict what type of changes will happen as a result of societal change, technological change, or disruptive events like COVID-19, but people simulation can help us become more resilient, from readiness through response to and recovery from disruptions.

The New Normal…Designing for People

Owner-operators of infrastructure assets around the world are using simulations to test cost-effective operations while guaranteeing adherence to social distancing guidelines. Once models are developed in LEGION, users can test multiple “what-if” scenarios by varying demand, instituting operational measures such as staff communications, signage, and one-directional flows, or changing infrastructure with new entrances, separation barriers, and security checks. Users such as AREP, London Underground, and Santiago Metro can also test future demand, the number of trains in service, and potential service disruptions, guaranteeing that every station and public space is ready for a wide range of scenarios, including response strategies that guarantee faster recovery times.

Bentley users around the world, including owner-operators and consultants, are already using our digital twin solutions to plan, design, and simulate possible future scenarios. We are consistently helping organizations going digital by providing applications and workflows that enable collaboration when working remotely and more-efficient processes in each step of an asset’s lifecycle.

Google Targets Carbon-Free Power For Data Centers by 2030

By the start of the next decade Google wants to make sure all the electricity it uses for its data centers and offices will be truly 100% carbon free.

Under its previous pledge the tech giant has been offsetting its consumption with direct renewable electricity purchases and the associated certificates. On paper, that allowed it to claim it used 100% renewable electricity. But when the sun doesn’t shine or the wind doesn’t blow, it’s still drawing its power from polluting fossil fuels.

The new policy will ensure that doesn’t happen again.

As part of a series of commitments on Monday, Google also said it will leverage more than $5 billion dollars of investment in 5 gigawatts of wind, solar, nuclear and other new carbon-free energy projects across its supply chain over the next decade.  The company said the move will create 20,000 new jobs.

“The science is clear: The world must act now if we’re going to avert the worst consequences of climate change. We are committed to doing our part,” Sundar Pichai, Google’s chief executive officer, said in a blog post.

The announcement comes as wildfires rage across California and huge blazes darkened skies in the San Francisco Bay Area, where Google is headquartered.

To deliver clean energy around the clock Google will use a bundle of measures including pairing wind and solar projects, using more batteries to store power and investing in artificial intelligence to improve power demand and forecasting.

The decision shines a light on the inadequacy of companies using renewable energy certificates to meet their climate targets instead of directly buying power from projects.

For every renewable energy certificate bought, a company is guaranteed that someone somewhere will generate one unit of electricity using renewables.  But that doesn’t mean electricity used, say at night, won’t have emissions attached to it.

So despite the certificates officially covering all of Google’s demand, its data centers are only run on clean energy for 61% of a day on average, the company estimated.

“At the most basic level, this company is going to need to double-up, or even triple-up, on clean energy purchases,” said Kyle Harrison, analyst at Bloomberg NEF.

Pichai also announced Monday that Google has offset its historical emissions, effectively clearing its carbon debts for the past 22 years.  But those legacy emissions, from 1998 to 2006, are estimated to be smaller than one year of its current net operational emissions – less than 1 million tons of carbon dioxide equivalent.

“By becoming the first major tech company to commit to power its data centers with carbon-free energy around the clock, Google is setting a new high bar for the sector,” said Elizabeth Jardim, senior corporate campaigner for Greenpeace USA.

 

Microsoft Corp., which is also one of the world’s biggest buyers of clean power, announced a similar plan to fine tune its carbon-free target and has also pledged to eliminate its historical emissions debt.  But unlike Google, it’s created new financial products that can be added onto existing power purchase agreements and reduce the risk of intermittent renewable technologies.  It’s also decided to find technological and nature-based solutions to erase its past debts, instead of relying on offsets, which have proved controversial.

 

Why Carbon Offsets Don’t Do All That They Promise

Future carbon goals are more important for tackling climate change, particularly in expanding companies like Google, which has seen its power demand soar by 450% since 2010, according to BloombergNEF.

The analysts estimate Google will need to buy 15.5 terawatt hours of clean power by 2030 just to keep meeting its existing 100% renewable power target.  Much more will be needed to meet its new goal of round-the-clock carbon-free energy.

Google said it hopes more companies will follow suit.

“A big part of what we are aiming to do is provide a template and a blueprint, talk to people and show that it’s possible to get to carbon-free operations,” said Google spokeswoman Jenny Jamie.

Author: Jess Shankleman, Bloomberg Green

 

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SMART Competition Registration

There are no official competition beginning or ending dates on the competition schedule.  The SMART Competition has made the schedule completely flexible.  The actual dates and specific deliverable dates are subject to the decisions made by each individual team.  Each team has the flexibility to create their own project plan and schedule. 

 “While we believe the Competition can be completed in 1-2 months, we want each team to control the time they spend on the competition”.  According to Michael Andrews, one of the SMART Competition leadership team, “providing flexibility and emphasizing team decision making is one essential element of success.”  

 One of the first activities each team completes is their schedule using the project management system within Bentley ProjectWise.

 The Competition is an excellent educational program that compliments studies in sustainability, LEED design issues, and renewable power generation.

The SMART Competition (www.smartcompetition.org) is a global STEM and Career and Technology Education (CTE) education program.  The competition is open to all high school and university students.  The competition is designed to attract all students without regard or bias of gender, race, socio-economic or academic performance level.

For additional information, contact Mike Andrews, m.andrews@smartcompetition.org

SMART and Mount Kilimanjaro

Anne Lorimor has the record of being the oldest person to climb Mount Kilimanjaro.  Anne was 89 when she reached the peak on July 18th, 2019.  She loves hiking and she didn’t start with Kilamanjaro.  It started walking on streets and on hiking trails.  She upward climb included Pikes Peak, the Great Pyramid, and Ayers Rock.

She started small and worked her way up to the top of Mount Kilimanjaro… twice!

What’s the relationship with SMART?

The competition gives the student teams a virtual model of a high school campus with the design challenge of improving its energy efficiency.  Teams focus on the use of sustainable materials and renewable technology (S.M.A.R.T.).  Some students see this challenge as their “technical Mount Kilimanjaro”.

How do you reach the peak?

Anne didn’t get to the top of the mountain because one day in 2015 she boarded a flight to Tanzania and climb the mountain.  She took time…she practiced…she took small steps to build her strength and endurance.

First, register for the SMART Competition.

Second, register for access to the Bentley software.  When you’ve created the account, you’ll have access to Bentley’s OpenBuilding Designer (https://www.bentley.com/en/products/product-line/building-design-software/openbuildings-designer) software.

Third, design a doghouse.  You know, walls, an opening for the dog, a roof.  That’s all.  Just a simple doghouse.

Fourth, improve the doghouse.  Add a window, then add insulation to the walls.  How about a skylight?

Fifth, conduct a tour of the doghouse.  The simulation package within the software can take you around and inside the doghouse.

 

It’s all about the hikes in the woods, on mountain trails, Pikes Peak and the Pyramids…all before you climb Mount Kilimanjaro.  Try building the doghouse before redesigning the gymnasium!

The SMART Competition is open to all high school students who attend public, private, parochial, charter and home-based schools or participate in informal education programs.  The competition is designed to attract all students without regard or bias of gender, race, socio-economic or academic performance level.

 

 

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ASHRAE Issues Statements on Relationship Between COVID-19 and HVAC in Buildings

The American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) has published two statements to define guidance on managing the spread of SARSCoV2, the virus that causes COVID-19 disease (Coronavirus) with respect to the operation and maintenance of heating, ventilating and air-conditioning systems in buildings.

“In light of the current global pandemic, it’s critically important that ASHRAE responds with guidance on mitigating the transmission of the virus, as well as ventilation and filtration recommendations,” said 2019-20 ASHRAE President Darryl K. Boyce, P.Eng. “ASHRAE has a significant role to play in ensuring safe and healthy building environments and these statements offer the expert strategies needed at this time.”

ASHRAE developed the following statements in response to widening false statements surrounding HVAC systems.  ASHRAE officially opposes the advice not to run residential or commercial HVAC systems and asserts that keeping air conditioners on during this time can help control the spread of the virus.

 

ASHRAE’s statement on airborne transmission of SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19

Transmission of SARS-CoV-2 through the air is sufficiently likely that airborne exposure to the virus should be controlled. Changes to building operations, including the operation of heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning systems, can reduce airborne exposures.

 

ASHRAE’s statement on operation of heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning systems to reduce SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 transmission

Ventilation and filtration provided by heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning systems can reduce the airborne concentration of SARS-CoV-2 and thus the risk of transmission through the air.  Unconditioned spaces can cause thermal stress to people that may be directly life threatening and that may also lower resistance to infection. In general, disabling of heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning systems is not a recommended measure to reduce the transmission of the virus.

HVAC filters, along with other strategies, help to reduce virus transmission while removing other air contaminants that may have health effects.

ASHRAE’s Environmental Health Committee also developed an Emerging Issues Brief to support the two above statements:

There is great concern about the real possibility of transmission through the air of various pathogens, especially SARS-CoV-2, among staff and administration in healthcare facilities, office workers, retail workers and patrons, manufacturing workers, and residents in private and public facilities and the general public in outdoor settings and in public transportation.

ASHRAE has created the Epidemic Task Force, comprised of leading experts to address the relationship between the spread of disease and HVAC in buildings during of the current pandemic and future epidemics.  The ASHRAE Environmental Health Committee’s Position Document Committee also updated a Position Document on Infectious Aerosols.

“ASHRAE, working with its industry partners, is uniquely qualified to provide guidance on the design, operation, and maintenance of heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning systems to the COVID-19 pandemic as well as to prepare for future epidemics,” said ASHRAE Epidemic Task Force chair, ASHRAE Environmental Health Committee voting member and 2013-14 ASHRAE Presidential Member Bill Bahnfleth.

Please visit the newly updated ASHRAE’s COVID-19 Resources webpage at ashrae.org/COVID19 for additional details. The page includes frequently asked questions and the latest information on the ETF’s guidance for healthcare facilities, residential buildings and other issues related to the COVID-19 pandemic.

 

Written by Sherri Simmons, ASHRAE media relations

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New Post-Tensioned Structural Concrete Code

I know….you’re asking “What is post-tensioning and why is it important to SMART?

Post-tensioning is adding plastic sleeved steel cables to a concrete slab before the slab is poured to give the slab extra strength.  When the slab is poured, the cables are pulled tight and anchored to the border of the slab.  Post-tensioning accomplishes two things.  First, it adds strength to the concrete slab.  Second, it stops the slab from cracking.  That’s really important if you’re building a house and never want the tiles in the kitchen or bathroom to crack….or you don’t want to see cracks in the garage floor.  The OpenBuildings software provided to the competition by Bentley Systems makes it possible for architects and building designers to include post-tensioning in the design process.

Anyway….

The American Concrete Institute (ACI) and Post-Tensioning Institute (PTI) have announced an expanded partnership, formalized through the new joint ACI-PTI Committee 320, Post-Tensioned Structural Concrete Code, in response to expressed industry need for building code requirements addressing the unique aspects of post-tensioned concrete design.

ACI-PTI 320 will develop and maintain a companion to ACI 318, “Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete.” Chairing the committee will be Dr. Carol Hayek, a member of ACI Committee 318, Structural Concrete Building Code; PTI Committee DC-20: Building Design; and, Joint ACI-ASCE Committee 423: Prestressed Concrete.

“Post-tensioning allows for design flexibility, materials reduction, and efficient constructability,” says PTI Executive Director Tony Johnson. “Establishment of ACI-PTI Committee 320 will not only help expedite the adoption of post-tensioning provisions into the concrete building code, but it will also enhance usability for the design engineer by consolidating post-tensioning design provisions into one convenient document. Dr. Hayek has been one of PTI’s most influential and active members, and her leadership of this committee is sure to result in the creation of excellent technical information for design professionals.”

“ACI and PTI, by combining volunteer and staff efforts, are well-positioned to meet the needs of the industry by producing new and user-friendly structural post-tensioning concrete building code requirements that complement existing code requirements,” adds ACI Executive Vice President Ronald Burg, P.E.

 

 Written by Concrete News

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Universities, Colleges and School buildings are going green

The U.K. is home to some of the world’s oldest — and most prestigious — universities.  And while these may be centers of excellence for learning, many institutions’ buildings were built centuries ago and are in need of refurbishment or, in some instances, total replacement.

It’s a problem that’s not restricted to higher education.  Across the world, many of the universities and colleges have a large number of aging buildings.  Those buildings are not as energy efficient as newly designed facilities and are difficult to remodel or retrofit.

In the U.K, some of the Victorian-era housing can be drafty and costly to maintain.  Office buildings, even though constructed about 20 years ago, are deemed high consumers of energy.

In the south of England, one place of learning is attempting to boost its green credentials with a brand new development.

Earlier this week, the construction firm Osborne “formally handed over” the West Downs Centre to the University of Winchester.  A handover refers to a contractor formally passing a development or facility over to their client.

The new building boasts a number of sustainable features designed to boost its green credentials.  These include a combined heat and power system; solar photovoltaic panels; rainwater recycling; and what the university described as “smart building management.”

Its development was supported by green financing through a £30 million ($37.26 million) loan from Triodos Bank, which offers what it describes as “sustainable financial products.”

The university has previously described the West Downs Centre as being “on target” for an “excellent” BREEAM rating.  BREEAM is a “sustainability assessment method” from the Building Research Establishment that covers infrastructure, master planning projects and buildings.  For additional information about BREEM, visit https://www.breeam.com.  BREEM and LEED (Leadership in Energy & Environmental Design) are systems that rate the overall design and construction of a building for efficient use of energy and other natural resources.

It’s hoped that teaching at the building could begin in this year, assuming that the current pandemic issues are resolved.  An official opening and inauguration are slated for next year.

Around the world, buildings designed for the education sector are being developed with sustainability in mind.

In March of this year, it was announced that the firm Veidekke had been tasked by the city of Oslo to build an energy-efficient, solar-paneled school.

At the time Veidekke said the Voldsløkka secondary school would have solar panels on its facades and roof.  In addition, machinery used on the building site would run on “fossil-free fuel.”

In the U.K., a number of universities are also turning to renewable sources of energy.  These include the University of Sussex, which has installed over 3,000 solar panels at its campus in a £1.5 million initiative.

Elsewhere, the University of Nottingham has said its “recent new builds” include things such as biomass boilers, green roofs and passive design.

Building Management System (BMS) or Building Information Management systems (BIM), are being implemented to monitor and control building energy consumption and the types of devises that utilize energy throughout the day.  Facility management professionals are able to balance the electrical loads caused by lighting, air conditioning/heating, computer use and even people to optimize consumption.   According to the university officials, its BMS “controls 95% of our campus buildings, ensuring intelligent control of the building systems to make sure there’s no energy waste.”

Other examples include University College Cork, in Ireland, which said it reduced total energy use by over 20% between 2008 and 2018. The 2018/19 academic year saw the university undertake 22 different energy efficiency projects, including the installation of 42 kilowatts of solar power.

Look for terms or phrases that include IoT, IoE, smart village, wearable technology and other intelligent systems as we move into the next generation of building design.

 

Written by Anmar Frangoul

 

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Chicago office building constructed with Coronavirus-fighting features

A $26 million Chicago office building will be one of the first in the country to boast features designed to address COVID-19 safety concerns.

The 90,000-square-foot Fulton East, which was under construction when the outbreak hit, has been engineered for maximum social distancing, touch-free operation and air and surface sensitization.

Bob Wislow, CEO of Fulton East developer Parkside Realty Inc.   foresees a move away from large floor-plate buildings filled with multiple companies on each floor sharing bathrooms, corridors and public areas.  High-rise buildings with crowded lobbies and long waits for elevators will become less desirable as well, he said.

The 12-story Fulton East, which will house up to 500 people at full occupancy, is constructed with 10,605-square-foot floor plates that facilitate flexible, custom planning options for tenants, he said.  Smaller floor plates also provide a greater percentage of natural daylight and views per square foot of occupied space, something that studies have shown improves performance, provides numerous health benefits and even reduces employee sick days, said architect Lamar Johnson in the statement.

In addition, each floor has only three columns, enabling flexibility in office design to easily accommodate social distancing guidelines, including two distinct wet column areas providing the opportunity for two separated cafes and kitchens.  Corridors and restrooms are not shared among tenants and each restroom has one fixture more than Chicago city code mandates.

To help reduce the spread of germs and viruses, the building utilizes MAD Elevator Inc.’s Toe-To-Go hands-free elevator system and the airPHX air and surface sensitization system that the company claims reduces up to 99% of viruses, bacteria and mold on surfaces and in the air.

Other health, safety and wellness enhancements include:

  • Touch-free thermal scanning at the lobby security desk to check temperatures of people entering the building.
  • Touch-free key fob access and security system, pre-wired for future BLE (Bluetooth Low Energy) accessed via a mobile phone.
  • Touch-free, after-hours security/building access/intercom/elevator access system.
  • Nonshared 9-by-27-foot private outdoor balconies on each floor.
  • An 8,000-square-foot rooftop garden for individual use and small group meetings.
  • Restroom walls painted with Sherwin-Williams Paint Shield that is said to kill greater than 99.9% of Staph, MRSA, E. coli and other pathogens within two hours of exposure.

Heightened awareness

Experts predict the coronavirus outbreak has accelerated the move toward more health-related features in buildings such as offices, retail outlets, restaurants and apartments.  This heightened awareness means that employers are considering health-related issues over energy savings or aesthetic considerations when evaluating office buildings

“This pandemic and the prospect of future contagions are a permanent tipping point in the rise in prominence of healthy buildings,” the ULI authors wrote.

 

The International WELL Building Institute (IWBI) recently launched the WELL Health-Safety Rating for all building and facility types, an evidence-based, third-party verified rating focusing on operational policies, maintenance protocols and design strategies to address a post COVID-19 environment.  The WELL Health-Safety Rating is one of the earliest outcomes of IWBI’s Task Force on COVID-19, a group of nearly 600 public health experts, virologists, government officials, academics, business leaders, architects, designers, building scientists and real estate professionals.

 

Author:  Jenn Goodman

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